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On top of the Giotto's Campanile, a 14th-century free-standing bell tower of the Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence, Italy. 
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On top of the Giotto's Campanile, a 14th-century free-standing bell tower of the Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence, Italy.

Wikipedia: "Standing adjacent the Basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore and the Baptistry of St. John, the tower is one of the showpieces of the Florentine Gothic architecture with its design by Giotto, its rich sculptural decorations and the polychrome marble encrustations. This slender structure stands on a square plan with a side of 14.45 meters (47.41 ft). It attains a height of 84.7 meters (277.9 ft) sustained by four polygonal buttresses at the corners.".
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Florence cathedral seen from the Boboli Gardens: Giotto's Campanile on the left, Brunelleschi's dome on the rightThe Giotto's Campanile in Florence, seen from the cathedral domeThe top of the Giotto's Campanile in Florence, seen from the cathedral domeGiotto's Campanile in FlorenceView from the Giotto's Campanile in FlorenceView from the Giotto's Campanile in FlorenceView from the Giotto's Campanile in Florence
Piazza del Duomo ('Cathedral Square') in Florence, Italy. 
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Piazza del Duomo ('Cathedral Square') in Florence, Italy.

On one side there is a monumental facade of the Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral, while on the other side there is St. John's Baptistry with its famous ornamented doors called the Gates of Paradise.
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Relief sculptures on the door of the Florence BaptistryRelief sculptures on the door of the Florence BaptistryRelief sculptures on the door of the Florence Baptistry
Inside the Duomo in Naples, Italy. 
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Inside the Duomo in Naples, Italy.

"Naples Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral, the main church of Naples, southern Italy, and the seat of the Archbishop of Naples. It is widely known as the Cattedrale di San Gennaro, in honour of Saint Januarius, the city's patron saint, but is actually dedicated to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

The present cathedral was commissioned by King Charles I of Anjou. Construction continued during the reign of his successor, Charles II (1285-1309) and was completed in the early 14th century under Robert of Anjou. It was built on the foundations of two palaeo-Christian basilicas, whose traces can still be clearly seen. Underneath the building excavations have revealed Greek and Roman artifacts.

The main attraction of the interior is the Royal Chapel of the Treasure of San Gennaro, with frescoes by Domenichino and Giovanni Lanfranco, altarpieces by Domenichino, Massimo Stanzione and Jusepe Ribera, the rich high altar by Francesco Solimena, the bronze railing by Cosimo Fanzago and other artworks, including a reliquary by 14th century French masters. [...]

The church houses a vial of the blood of Saint Januarius which is brought out twice a year, on the first Saturday in May and on 19 September, when the dried blood usually liquefies. If the blood fails to liquefy, then legend has it that disaster will befall Naples." (Text from Wikipedia).

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In the Naples CathedralIn the Naples Cathedral
Inside the famous 12th-century cathedral of Monreale near Palermo, Sicily. 
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Inside the famous 12th-century cathedral of Monreale near Palermo, Sicily.

"The Cathedral of Monreale is one of the greatest extant examples of Norman architecture in the world. It was begun in 1174 by William II, and in 1182 the church, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, was, by a bull of Pope Lucius III, elevated to the rank of a metropolitan cathedral. The church is a national monument of Italy and one of the most important attractions of Sicily.

The church's plan is a mixture of Eastern Rite and Roman Catholic arrangement. The nave is like an Italian basilica, while the large triple-apsed choir is like one of the early three-apsed churches, of which so many examples still exist in Syria and other Oriental countries. It is, in fact, like two quite different churches put together endwise.

The basilican nave is wide, with narrow aisles. Monolithic columns of grey oriental granite (except one, which is of cipolin marble), on each side support eight pointed arches much stilted. The capitals of these (mainly Corinthian) are also of the classical period. There is no triforium, but a high clerestory with wide two-light windows, with simple tracery like those in the nave-aisles and throughout the church, which give sufficient light.

The other half, Eastern in two senses, is both wider and higher than the nave. It also is divided into a central space with two aisles, each of the divisions ending at the east with an apse. The roofs throughout are of open woodwork very low in pitch, constructionally plain, but richly decorated with color, now mostly restored. At the west end of the nave are two projecting towers, with a narthex (entrance) between them. [...]

It is, however, the large extent (6,500 m²) of the impressive glass mosaics covering the interior which make this church so splendid. With the exception of a high dado, made of marble slabs with bands of mosaic between them, the whole interior surface of the walls, including soffits and jambs of all the arches, is covered with minute mosaic-pictures in bright colors on a gold ground. The mosaic pictures are arranged in tiers, divided by horizontal and vertical bands. In parts of the choir there are five of these tiers of subjects or single figures one above another.

The half dome of the central apse has a colossal half-length figure of Christ, with a seated Virgin and Child below; the other apses have full-length figures of St Peter and St Paul. Inscriptions on each picture explain the subject or saint represented; these are in Latin, except some few which are in Greek. The subjects in the nave begin with scenes from the Book of Genesis, illustrating the Old Testament types of Christ and His scheme of redemption, with figures of those who prophesied and prepared for His coming. Around the lower tier and the choir are subjects from the New Testament, chiefly representing Christ's miracles and suffering, with apostles, evangelists and other saints. The design, execution and choice of subjects all appear to be of Byzantine origin, the subjects being selected from the Menologion of Basil II drawn up by the emperor Basil II in the 10th century." (Text from Wikipedia).

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The Monreale CathedralThe Monreale CathedralThe Monreale CathedralThe Monreale Cathedral
On the roof of the apse of the famous 12th century cathedral of Monreale near Palermo, Sicily. 
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On the roof of the apse of the famous 12th century cathedral of Monreale near Palermo, Sicily.
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Palermo from the Monreale CathedralPalermo from the Monreale CathedralPalermo from the Monreale CathedralThe cloisters of Monreale
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Thursday, Nov 2, 2017: On the walls of Palácio da Pena in Sintra, Portugal
Palácio da Pena
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